“The fan was said to have done something illegal – he has been rushed to hospital.”The match was goalless after half an hour before this incident.“Pillars fans would have to be commended for the way and manner they comported themselves during the problem,” said Malikawa.“The situation was brought to normal but Heartland refused to continue for fear of their safety despite assurances from the match officials.”However, Heartland media officer Cajetan Nwokpara gave a different account, saying some home fans invaded the pitch.“Our match was inconclusive because some home fans invaded the pitch with knives, cutting the net and trying to remove the goal post after they had done so with the corner flags,” he said.“I don’t really know what caused this. We were escorted to our hotel by the security and everybody in our team is okay.”Interestingly the same fixture last season also ended in controversy after Heartland claimed they were manhandled by their home fans after they managed a 1-1 draw in Kano.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000LAGOS, Nigeria, April 25 – A high-profile Nigeria league match between champions Kano Pillars and Heartland was abandoned on Wednesday after police shot a fan at the Sani Abacha Stadium in Kano, northern Nigeria. “The match was called off after Heartland refused to continue the game after a fan was shot in the foot by police inside the stadium and the fans protested,” Pillars media officer Idris Malikawa disclosed.
0Shares0000MANILA, November 30- The head of the Palestinian Football Association on Sunday called for FIFA to suspend Israel over a raid on the body’s offices which also drew a strong response from Asian soccer authorities.Jibril Al Rajoub said the world body should give a “red card” to Israel following last week’s raid on the soccer organisation’s headquarters in the West Bank. He spoke as Palestine was named team of the year at the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) awards night in Manila, following their victory in this year’s AFC Challenge Cup.“I think it’s time to take sanctions. What happened last week had no precedence in the history of sport,” Al Rajoub told journalists.“I don’t think the Israelis have the right to enjoy the status and at the same time deprive others… It’s time FIFA should raise the red card,” he added.The AFC earlier denounced Israel’s raid, with its president Shaikh Salman bin Ebrahim Al Khalifa calling the action “intolerable and unacceptable”.Al Rajoub said three armoured cars drew up outside the Palestinian FA offices, where Israeli forces confronted staff and checked documents before leaving about 40 minutes later.He added he was concerned travel restrictions would prevent Palestine from sending a full-strength team to January’s Asian Cup in Australia, their first major tournament.“I’m sure that some of them will not (be allowed to travel). Even when we played the Challenge Cup, six players were prevented,” Al Rajoub said.“I hope we can take everybody but in spite of that we have no other choice. We have determination and we will continue no matter whether the Israelis will allow everyone to come.”The Palestinians gained entry to the Asian Cup, the continent’s top international competition, by winning the AFC Challenge Cup in the Maldives in May.0Shares0000(Visited 2 times, 1 visits today)
0Shares0000Jurgen Klopp was delighted after his side thrashed big wigs Barcelona 4-0.LONDON, United Kingdom, Aug 7 -Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp admitted to feeling emotional after watching his side thump Barcelona 4-0 at a packed Wembley Stadium on Saturday.The Reds claimed the emphatic victory over the Spanish champions courtesy of Saido Mane’s first goal for the club, a Javier Mascherano own goal, and second half strikes from Divock Origi and Marko Grujic. A key component of Liverpool’s win was their high defensive line and intensity of closing Barca’s players down to limit their space to influence the game and Klopp feels there were several positive lessons for his players to learn from the result.“It was a wonderful lesson for us today because we did really well, but when we become a little bit passive, it is a problem for us,” he told Sky Sports. “That is normal, not only against Barca, but especially against Barca.“Wonderful goals, great challenges. We wanted to do high pressure, which I think is important against Barca. But of course you cannot do it the whole time and you have to be compact against Barca.“We have to learn better that when we stay deep, we must be active and it was a little bit of a problem, but there were also some wonderful moments.“I am really happy and emotional about the reaction here in London. Liverpool came to London today and it was really nice to have all these people here, 90 per cent on our side, which you do not often get in a match.”0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
First there was cash. Then there was plastic. Now there’s the key fob. Credit card companies and banks say busy consumers ever in search of a faster way through a line will increasingly replace their credit and debit cards with this small device that stores easily on key chains. The benefit of the key fobs and “contactless” credit cards is they can be waved over a scanner for easy debiting or crediting, usually in under 13 seconds. The current swipe system, which requires consumers to run their card through a narrow trough, or a simple cash transaction take twice as long. Some 30 million Americans could potentially be waving good-bye to the swipe system this year and adopting a key fob or contactless credit card, up from about 9 million last year, according to David Robertson, publisher of The Nilson Report, a Carpinteria-based newsletter that tracks the credit card industry. But some critics say the same technology that makes these contactless payment devices easier to use also makes them more of a target for thieves. Also, the new devices may not be great for consumers who have trouble controlling their debt. “For people that are very organized and good at managing money, these are excellent tools. But for those who are trying to follow a budget it (swipeless credit cards) can be very dangerous,” said Jennifer Root, a spokeswoman for ByDesign Financial Solutions, a nonprofit organization in Los Angeles that helps people manage their debt. MasterCard, Visa and American Express all offer their own version of swipeless plastic, which take the form of credit cards, debit cards and keychains. They do that by inserting a thumbnail size chip that sends an encrypted code when the card or keychain is held within two to three inches of a scanner, usually attached to the credit card swiper. Despite their appeal, consumers remain divided on whether the technology bodes well for their pocketbooks. Some say the ease of payment would make such products prime targets for thieves because they do not require a PIN number to use. But others welcome a technology that doesn’t require repetitive swiping and signatures. “Consumers will take to it if merchants and card issuers promote the technology sufficiently,” Robertson said. Ruth Henry, a 76-year-old retired medical receptionist from Woodland Hills, is already in the know about contactless credit cards. She thought about using a similar product called Speedpass a swipeless card offered by Exxon and Mobil gasoline stations but never followed up on the offer. “But because these things work so quickly, I’d definitely consider it. I like the idea of a key chain credit card. That would be convenient for me,” said Henry, displaying a keychain that holds her house key, car key, Ralphs card, Albertsons card and a gym membership ID. Citibank began offering a swipeless key fob in 2005, allowing consumers to make a purchase by dangling or tapping their keys in front of a reader at the cash register. Restaurants, drug stores and movie theaters are among the first merchants to offer swipeless payment. They include McDonald’s, 7-Eleven, Ritz Camera Centers, Duane Reade, CVS, Regal Entertainment Group theatres and various stadiums throughout the country. Asaf Buchner, associate analyst with Jupiter Research in New York, said location is key when attracting more consumers to contactless payment products.“But I’d say there is a coolness factor of contactless. And there is an attempt to get people to buy into the fact that they are more in control of their life with these products,” he said. When dealing with credit and debit cards, security is usually a priority for people who want more control. And because contactless credit cards don’t always require a signature, security issues are a common concern. Most cards and keychains, including MasterCard’s PayPass, come with a chip and radio antennas that help identify fraudulent use of cloned card data and random numbers generated at the sales counter. Stephen Miles, a research scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has studied the technology, said swipeless credit cards are safer than traditional because they are virtually impossible to counterfeit. “It’s difficult (for counterfeiters) to eavesdrop on these products,” said Miles, who notes the technology is far safer than a traditional credit card because the account numbers are stored on a chip. But that doesn’t alleviate Tom Dworkin’s concerns. The 62-year-old businessman said anyone can pick up a contactless card or keychain and immediately begin charging. “Even though signing for a credit card takes up time, I’d much rather do that than think about someone stealing my keychain,” said Dworkin, who was a victim of identity theft about a year ago. “I’d rather see Big Brother stick around in this case and require signatures.” American Express claims that theft of contactless credit cards isn’t an issue because the company will cancel payments that were not made by the cardholder. Credit card companies are also beginning to require a signature for contactless purchases of more than $25. But the speed of a contactless transaction also poses its share of issues. According to American Express, the average ExpressPay transaction takes 12.5 seconds, compared with the 26.7 seconds and 33.7 seconds it takes for credit card and cash transactions. Francisco Hernandez, 22, from Inglewood, said at that rate, Expresspay would save him at least a couple minutes a week. “But do I really want to make it that easy to spend money?” asked Hernandez, who works for the U.S. Postal Service. “I don’t think so.” firstname.lastname@example.org (818) 713-3682 AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREOregon Ducks football players get stuck on Disney ride during Rose Bowl event160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Due to an editing error, a story Wednesday about a UCLA study on the cost benefits of Proposition 36 misattributed a quote. In fact, it was co-author Dave Fratello who said, “The best we can project, based on the UCLA numbers, the state has saved $1.5 billion in five years. That includes $1 billion in annual expenses and $500 million for not having to build a prison that would have been necessary had we been incarcerating drug users.” A story Wednesday incorrectly reported that the Gustav Klimt exhibit will be open at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art through June 20. In fact, the display will close June 30. In last week’s edition of The Good Life, some information about Autry National Center was out of date. The following is correct: 4700 Western Heritage Way, Griffith Park. (323) 667-2000. Open 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Tuesday through Sundays, and Thursdays until 8 p.m. (Memorial Day through Labor Day only). 225-seat theater, conservation laboratory, archives and restaurant. Web: www.autrynationalcenter.org AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREOregon Ducks football players get stuck on Disney ride during Rose Bowl event160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Donegal County Council’s Cool Route Project has won an Atlantic Project Award at the prestigious awards ceremony at the 5th Atlantic Stakeholder Platform Conference in Vigo, Spain.The Atlantic Project Awards, established in 2016, are designed to honour outstanding success stories achieved by projects in the geographical area covered by the Atlantic Strategy that showcase relevance to the implementation of the Atlantic Action Plan.They promote individual winners and at the same time highlight the incorporation and scaling up of best practices at regional, national, European and international level. This project was funded by the Northern Periphery and Arctic Programme and today’s award recognises the role of the Cool Route project in Creating a Socially Inclusive and Sustainable Model of Regional Development.The Cool Route Project 2015-2018, is led by Cork Institute of Technology’s (CIT) Hincks Centre for Excellence in Entrepreneurship and has partners in Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, the Faroe Islands and Norway.Donegal County Council is responsible for the Project Communications and Dissemination of information in relation to all aspects of the project both internally to all partners and externally to stakeholders and the general public.The Cool Route addresses the development of Marine Tourism, through the provision of small pontoons and marinas in peripheral coastal locations, which facilitate visits from all types of vessels, ranging from small private craft to liners. Even very large liners regularly disembark marine visitors using ship’s tenders. The project successfully completed a wide range of research into all aspects of its objectives. Accepting the award on behalf of CIT from EU Commissioner Mr Karmenu Vella, Dr Orla Flynn, Cork Institute of Technology’s Vice President for External Affairs, praised all the Cool Route partners around the Northern Periphery and Arctic Area for securing such an excellent recognition of their work. Dr Flynn advised the large attendance from all over the Atlantic Area, of the value of local marinas and small pontoons to the tourism economy of peripheral coastal communities, noting that even liners could disembark visitors to areas having a small pontoon facility.Cool Route partners and roles are as follows:· Cork Institute of Technology – Lead Partner, Project Realisation and Commercialisation· Donegal County Council –Project Communications and Dissemination· The Royal Cork Yacht Club – Cool Route Marketing· Derry and Strabane District Council- On line Information and Booking System· Glasgow Caledonian University- Cool Route logistics· The Port Authority of Torshavn- Route Safety· The Western Norway Research Institute – Tourism inputsFor more on the Cool Route project visit www.sailcoolroute.eu or join the conversation on Twitter @EUcoolroute and Facebook @eucoolrouteDonegal’s Cool Route is an International winner was last modified: October 23rd, 2018 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
15 June 2011The historic $1-trillion African free trade area, the first vital steps towards which were taken over the weekend, will serve as a major boost for the BRICS grouping, says International Marketing Council of South Africa CEO Miller Matola.Leaders of 26 countries African countries, meeting in Johannesburg over the weekend, agreed to formally launch negotiations to establish a grand free trade area pulling together three regional economic communities, namely the Common Market for East and Southern Africa, the East African Community and the Southern African Development Community.The agreement centres on creating the continent’s biggest free trade bloc to create a single continent-wide market estimated to be worth $1-trillion by 2013. The countries involved have an aggregate GDP of US$860-billion and a combined population of 590-million.One massive market“The BRICS countries [Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa] will welcome the prospect of interacting with a combined unit rather than having to deal will the countries in question on an individual basis,” Matola said in a statement on Monday.“In similar vein, the envisaged grand free trade area would contain considerably more muscle than its constituent parts.”The BRICS members would then deal with one massive market, instead of 26 separate ones, Matola said. South Africa, being both a member of BRICS and of the soon-to-be free trade area, would be particularly advantaged.Matola predicted that the free trade area would promote greater interaction between BRICS and Africa, especially in light of the International Monetary Fund’s optimism about Africa’s growth potential, and the likelihood that the free trade area would draw other African countries into joining.While Africa is a growing opportunity and experiencing the third-fastest growth behind China and India, a mere 10% of Africa’s trade is between fellow countries on the continent.South Africa ‘will not dominate’Briefing journalists in Parliament in Cape Town on Monday, Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies said that although South Africa was by far the largest economy of the 26 across the three regions, it would not dominate trade when the free trade area was set up, as all members would play a role in negotiations.Added to this, the 25 other member countries did not hold any expectation that South Africa would finance all the continent’s necessary infrastructure development projects, he said.But Davies was quick to point out that South African companies should get involved in key infrastructure projects, such as the North-South Corridor which cuts through Zambia and Zimbabwe.He said formal trade blocs would never reach full fruition unless the continent’s infrastructure backlog was addressed. To this end, about 80 projects were already on the go in the North-South Corridor.Countries outside the FTADavies also stressed that the planned free trade area would not necessary affect any trade relationships South Africa had with African countries outside the free trade area.Davies said the idea was to set up a single regional economic community covering all three existing blocs.Next up for discussion would be to include West African countries in the free trade negotiations, he said, explained that practical considerations meant the three grouping that met in Johannesburg were already predisposed to working together.Many of the members of the three blocs were already members of more than one of these regional economic communities, which meant they had to work together, particularly in achieving a unified customs union. Under World Trade Organisation rules, member countries cannot be a member of more than one customs union.First phase ‘in three years’The first phase of setting up the 26-country free trade area is expected to come into effect in three years, Davies said, noting that member countries had agreed to carry out negotiations in two phases, with the first to be concluded within 36 months.Phase one, the current phase, was a trading goods agreement dealing with tariff liberalisation, rules of origin, dispute resolution, customs procedures and simplification, transit procedures and non-tariff barriers.The first phase would also include the movement of business people across the three regions, Davies said.Phase two would tackle trading services, competition policy and intellectual property rights across the three regional blocs. A work programme to address industrial development still needed to be set up. Davies said that although no time-frame had been set as yet for the conclusion of this phase.He said the time-period for phase one had been set at a rather short three years as each of the regional economic communities already ran free trade agreements confined to their respective communities.Members from the three regional economic communities had also committed to ongoing monitoring and negotiations.Two committees had been set up, namely a tripartite trade relations committee, which would file quarterly reports, and a sectoral ministerial committee on trade, which is expected to meet every six months and report to the council of ministers on negotiations.Davies said negotiations would allow for special differential treatment so that smaller states would be treated more leniently in the implementation of tariffs and other objectives.Added to this, nothing would be agreed upon until everything was agreed in full, he said.At home, the South African government would engage at every stage with business and labour through the National Economic Development and Labour Council (Nedlac).SAinfo reporter and BuaNews
8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Related Posts marshall kirkpatrick Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Analysis#Data Services#web They say Big Data is going to be big business, big innovation – a big deal. But how is it going to go down? Applied math and decision science company Mu Sigma announced more than $100 million in new venture backing yesterday, including from previous investors Sequoia Capital, bringing the company’s total investment to $150 million. Mu Sigma provides big data services to some of the biggest companies in the world. How do they do it? With a combination of math, science, creative thinking and long hours of hard work. As democratized publishing, network connected devices and the instrumentation of everyday life combine to create a great blue ocean of big data all around us, the latest Mu Sigma funding is a valuable opportunity to get a taste of how one emerging leader in that market combines technology, math and art to engage with this big trend. Not everyone agrees that outsourcing Big Data work like this is the solution, though.Can Big Data Be Outsourced?Mu Sigma says it exists to “enable businesses to institutionalize data-driven decision making.” Its 1300 employees in Chicago and Bangalore help clients with marketing, supply chain and risk analytics. The firm says it “is arguably the world’s largest pure-play decision sciences and analytics services company.”Employee reviews of the company on website GlassDoor paint a picture of hard-driving young employees working grueling hours for low pay, but learning a lot at a young company.The seven year old firm helps clients with things like customer segmentation and purchase likelihood analysis in marketing, fraud detection and severity and statistical analysis for FDA trials in risk analysis and supply chain work like trend plotting, due date quoting, expedition optimization, location allocation “decisioning”, etc. All based on data.How can Mu Sigma compete in each of those tasks with other firms that specialize in one or the other? That’s unclear, but the company has developed momentum based on its broad approach. Mu Sigma says that it’s profitable, though the company declined to provide any specific financial numbers. Not everyone believes that solutions like Mu Sigma are the answer to Big Data problems and opportunities. “I’m skeptical of the idea of end to end ‘analytics outsourcing’ right now,” says Peter Skomoroch, of DataWrangling.com.“There is value in having external experts embedded with internal teams to help with big data, but to compete companies will also need to build up in-house talent. “It is tough to find good data people, and even more difficult to find ones with business sense and domain knowledge. Insight and creativity are not likely to be commoditized any time soon. The competitive advantage in this space will go to companies that build up unique datasets and build teams that know how to leverage them. Most game changing analytics is going to come from a small set of talented individuals, not an army of contractors.”In-house data scientists are incredibly hard to find, though. Cathy O’Neil, data scientist at ad startup Intent Media, says this is in part because “It is far less sexy to try to honestly find the confidence interval of a prediction than it is to model behavior.”“Data scientists are considered magical when they forecast behavior that was hitherto unknown, and they are considered total downers when they tell their CEO, ‘hey there’s just not enough data to start that business you want to start,’ or ‘hey this data is actually really fat-tailed and our confidence intervals suck.’“In other words, it’s something like what the head of risk management had to face at a big bank taking risks in 2007. There’s a responsibility to warn people that too much confidence in the models is bad, but then there’s the political reality of the situation, where you just want to be liked and you don’t actually have the power to stop the relevant decisions anyway.”Perhaps given that reality, outside big data firm Mu Sigma is clearly a company with some economic wind in its sails. Deborah Gage at the Wall St. Journal’s Venture Wire provides a good look at the company’s fast growth and interesting training program in her coverage this morning. Mu Sigma and InnovationReading previous coverage of the company’s work elsewhere, one name keep coming up: Zubin Dowlaty, Vice President and head of innovation and development at Mu Sigma.Dowalty spent the 1990’s doing statistical modeling at UPS. Then he joined the publicly traded InterContinental Hotels Group, where he was first the Director of Analytics in Consumer Insight and then the VP of Decision Sciences. He was featured prominently in a 2008 New York Times story about corporations using Prediction Markets to surface cost-saving and other ideas from inside their companies. Dowalty was photographed for the story wearing a wizard’s cap and holding a magical looking walking staff in his hands. He built an elaborate system to invite the hotel company’s employees to submit and vote on ideas, win rewards if theirs were selected and to surface via crowdsourcing strategic initiatives the company could act on. “We wanted to tap the creative class that may not be able to voice their ideas,” Dowlaty told the Times.Once at Mu Sigma, Dowlaty has become one of the company’s most visible public figures. His statements, as the head of innovation and development at a firm so focused on innovation, are noteworthy.In a January 2011 article from The Data Warehousing Institute on the rise of the data scientist, Dowlaty articulates the role of art and of science in big data.“I’m not a big fan of the spaghetti method. It makes me nervous when people run a lot of analytic techniques just to get the answer they want, instead of being objective. Doing this job properly requires the rigor of a scientist. The scientist can see things that other people cannot see.”As a standalone statement, that doesn’t sound particularly creative. It is important, though. “The ‘spaghetti method,’” cautions Josh Wills, Chief Data Scientist at Cloudera, “frantically searching for a technique that gives you the answer you want (or potentially, the answer that someone higher up in the org wants), as opposed to using the scientific method. This is a big problem in the industry, and the theory is that using an external firm mitigates that habit to some extent. Being a good data scientist often means telling powerful people stuff that they don’t want to hear.”Other statements from Dowlaty help put that sentiment about rigor in creative context. Mu Sigma itself uses a variety of different analytic models to tackle all the problems they engage with.Dowlaty told Revolution Analytics, whose R statistics software Mu Sigma makes use of:“We like to diversify our models…We have a portfolio of about 10 models that we’ll run to assess the stability of the coefficient and the predictive capability of that particular model. By running all the models, you can see which ones are the best predictors.”Revolution says of Dowlaty’s use of R at Mu Sigma, “The benefit of an ‘ensemble’ approach is that when new analytic techniques emerge, they can be brought into the mix without causing disruption. This makes the R especially valuable to Dowlaty, since the R software library evolves continually as members of the worldwide R community contribute new packages and programs.”In fact, both rigor and flexibility are key to the paradigm Dowlaty advocates. “The trend is toward a multi-disciplinary approach to extracting value from data,” he told The Data Warehousing Institute early this year. “It’s not just about math anymore. You also need technology skills, but what ultimately separates the analyst from the scientist is the dimension of artistic creativity. It’s the soft skills that make the big difference.”That combination of skills is what enables the firm to tackle the incredibly complex work they do. Dhiraj Rajaram, Mu Sigma’s CEO and the man who founded the company in 2004, spoke at the 2010 Predictive Analytics World conference on a panel with Mu Sigma customer Walmart. Walmart Financial Services, which named Mu Sigma its Supplier of the Year in 2011, works with the big data company to analyze and optimize the marketing of its financial products.Decision Management analyst James Taylor blogged the following summary of the conference presentation about the collaboration between Walmart Financial Services and Mu Sigma. This sounds like very complicated work.“WFS uses transaction life analysis around run rate and growth, price / mix analysis, financial returns and qualitative analysis of the creative. Marketing Mix modeling, optimization, lets them see the effect of individual campaigns (there’s a lot of Walmart stuff going on in the market), account for seasonality and manage at the store level. The idea is to make sure the marketing investment is optimized, targeted and repeatable.“Marketing mix optimization uses weekly sales, store traits and demographics, event information and macro-economic data to see how effective specific events were and what was the contribution to the overall effect. What was the value or contribution of each element, did they cannibalize each other, did they resonate in specific areas etc.”That sounds like a potent combination of math, science and creative thinking. It’s probably more a picture of the sector than of one company alone. Forrester analyst James Kobielus specializes in big data and says he’s done one briefing with Mu Sigma but didn’t detect any particular unique flavor to the firm’s work relative to others in the sector. Mu Sigma hasn’t yet responded to our request for comment on this article.Perhaps this company is typical of the sector and the questions to ask about it are more general.“My caveat with services like MuSigma is that they can analyze your data, but they can’t change your business,” says Cloudera’s Wills. “You are free to ignore what they tell you, and it is often the case that the answers they can give you are limited by your business practices and the data that you currently collect. The advantage of having an in-house data scientist, especially one with some programming skill, is that they can develop systems that collect better data so that they can come up with better answers.
Shots fired in a northeast Columbia duplex Friday morning.ABC17 News is reporting officers were called to Dawn Ridge Road just off Clark Lane at 10 Friday morning and stayed there nearly three hours.Police say at least four people are in custody but haven’t released any names yet. Officers released two women when they left the scene. CPD also hasn’t said if any charges will be requested.
Farming didn’t just revolutionize human society—it transformed the genome of our oldest friend, the dog. A new study reveals that by 7000 years ago, our canine companions were eating so much wheat and millet they made extra copies of starch-digesting genes to help them cope. And this adaptation is what allowed them to stay by our sides, even as our world changed.The genetic evolution in dogs parallels what others have found in humans, says Peter Savolainen, an evolutionary geneticist at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, who was not involved with the work. “With farming we started to eat starch, and both we and dogs had to adapt to this change.”Some of the first insights into how farming changed the canine genome came 3 years ago. That’s when evolutionary geneticist Erik Axelsson of Uppsala University in Sweden and his colleagues discovered that dogs have four to 30 copies of a gene—Amy2B—that helps digest starch, whereas wolves typically only have two. Morgane Ollivier wanted to know just when that genetic change happened. A paleogeneticist at Ecole Normale Supéieure de Lyon in France, she teamed up with Axelsson and others, who extracted ancient DNA from the bones and teeth of 13 wolf and dog specimens collected from archaeological sites throughout Eurasia. Four of the ancient dogs—from a 7000-year-old site in Romania and 5000-year-old sites in Turkmenistan and France—had more than eight copies of Amy2B, Ollivier and her colleagues report today in Royal Society Open Science. They do not yet know how many copies ancient wolves had.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Because these samples predate the emergence of dog breeds, believed to be within the past couple of centuries, the findings rule out a modern origin for the increase in copy number, says Laurent Frantz, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom who was not involved with the work. Adds Ollivier: “This [expansion] probably constituted an important advantage for dogs feeding on human leftovers,” as they hung around human settlements, perhaps serving as guard dogs.Dogs were likely domesticated more than 15,000 years ago, and as companions to hunter-gatherers, were likely eating mostly meat. Being able to survive on whatever humans discarded likely enabled dogs to become widespread as people migrated across the globe, says Robert Wayne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who was not involved with the study.In humans, the number of copies of this starch gene increased just as it did in dogs during the same time period, Ollivier says. She suggests there may be similar parallels in the evolution of metabolism, immunity, and brain processes in both species.A 2016 survey of various types of dogs from around the world—as well as golden jackals, coyotes, and wolves—supports the new work. It found that almost all the wolves, jackals, and coyotes had just two copies of Amy2B. So did Siberian huskies and dingoes, both of which lived with people who, until recently, hunted or fished for most of their food. The rest of the dogs studied had many more copies of the gene. Farming led to a fivefold increase in the number of starch-digesting genes in these dogs, Axelsson, Savolainen, and their colleagues reported in July in Heredity.Together, says Savolainen, the two studies “give a coherent picture” of man’s influence on man’s oldest friend. *Correction, 9 November, 11:26 a.m.: This story has been modified to reflect the correct gender of Ollivier and the correct terminology for the starch gene.